What is

NK cell?

Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate white blood cell with cytolytic activity against virus-infected cells and physiologically stressed cells like tumor cells. It acts as the frontliner of our immune system to approach the abnormal cells at first. About 10 – 15% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are consist of this NK cell.

What

NK cells do?

The name ‘natural killer’ derived from the ability of NK cells that target abnormal cells without the need for prior activations due to the absence of specific cell surface receptors on it.

  1. NK cells able to detect the cytokines released by pathogen-infected cells or malignantly transformed cell
  2. This in turn will bind to the activating ligand of NK cells.
  3. Once NK cells activated, cell-mediated cytotoxicity begin.
  4. By producing chemokines and cytokines against the abnormal cells.
  5. Modulating the functions of other immune cells.
  6. Eventually, lead to the lysis of infected cells and malignant cell.
 

This characteristic of NK cells allows it to be widely applied in various therapies including immunotherapy to fight against cancer and certain viral diseases. 

 

Are we

‘immortal’ or ‘vulnerable’?

Are these sign and symptoms sound familiar to you?

  • Delayed wound healing
  • Chronic fatigue: Feels tired even after sufficient hours of sleep
  • Digestive issues: constipations, diarrhea, bloating
  • Frequent/Recurrent infection: sinus, UTI, ear infections or usually lungs or viral infections.
  • Aging
  • Highly stressed
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Heavy smokers, Alcoholic
  • Long-term exposed to harmful environment (pollutions/hormones)
  • Family history of cancer
  • Cancer patients or recurrence
These are just the symptoms;

are we truly low in NK?

Measurement on NK activity level

The activity of our NK cells is a conventional parameter that can now be quantified through 1 ml of blood sample. This measurement provides reliable results in assessing our immune level by measuring the cytokine concentration/level of IFN-ɣ released by activated NK cells upon stimulations.

 

This test employed the principle of antigen-antibody reaction (Sandwich ELISA) that highly specific in detecting and measuring only the IFN-ɣ level by activated NK cell.

Low NK activity,

an indicator of weak immune system

Measurement on NK activity level is useful as complementary diagnostic tool to provide early signs of disease or a screening of disease state.

A reduced in NK cell activity
resulting high risk of:

(low cytotoxicity)

Quick-Fix Solution:

NK Immunotherapy

A promising anti-cancer strategy which flexible to be combined with other conventional cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery.

NK Immunotherapy enriches and enhances your own defend system against the enemies.

Autologous Transfer

  • Autologous infusion, very low risk of rejection
  • Expand the number, activate, and enrich the NK cells
  • NK cells do not require genetically engineered
  • Specifically targeted on malignant transform cell and virus infected cell only, greatly minimizing side effects
  • An immunity booster, prevent infections, prevent cancers!
How NK cells targeted

on cancerous cell

 

 

 

 


Sources: https://blog.codondex.com/2019/09/hope-for-p53-autologous-natural-killer.html

How NK cells targeted

on virus
infected cell

A series of microscopic picture on HIV-1-infected cell killing by NK cells. These pictures were taken every 5 minutes and lead to the dying of cells.

Green: HIV-1 infected cell

Round, arrow pointed: NK cell

Blue dye: Dying cell

Source: https://research.pasteur.fr/en/team/virus-and-immunity/

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